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5 Things to Know About Infant Vaccines Before Baby Arrives

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From the first shot your baby gets at birth to the cost of childhood vaccines, here are a few infant immunization essentials you need to know during pregnancy.

While your baby may not have made his or her big entrance yet, it’s important to understand the recommended vaccines and schedule now. That’s because some immunizations are given in the hospital, while others happen in the very first postnatal visits. Here are a few things you need to know about infant vaccines before your baby’s due date.

Immunizations are safe for babies

Despite the many myths surrounding vaccines, countless studies have shown that immunizations are very safe for babies. For one, the ingredients are safe. All routine infant vaccines contain no mercury (called thimerosal, a type of preservative that is eliminated rapidly by the body). Even though multi-dose vials of the flu vaccine typically contain a very small amount of thimerosal, parents can request a thimerosal-free flu shot for infants. What’s more, serious side effects from vaccines are rare. And it’s important to remember that vaccines have never (repeat, never) been linked to autism: The lone study that connected the two was retracted by the journal that published it — and the doctor responsible had his medical license revoked after he admitted he fudged the report’s data.

Infant immunizations are given in the first two months

Your baby’s recommended vaccine schedule starts at birth, when your newborn receives a vaccination for hepatitis B (HepB). At baby’s two-month follow-up appointment, he or she will receive a number of other essential immunizations, including RV (rotavirus), DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis — also known as whooping cough), Hib (haemophilus influenzae type b), PCV (pneumococcal) and IPV (polio) vaccines. Most of these have at least one follow-up shot or oral dose within the first two years; to keep track, you may want to keep a copy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) baby and child vaccine schedule handy.

Don’t forget, some immunizations you get during pregnancy also help protect your baby before and after birth. Two — the flu shot, offered during flu season, and the Tdap vaccine, given between weeks 27 and 36 of pregnancy, preferably on the earlier side of that time frame — are recommended for all expecting women. The flu vaccine helps prevent dangerous complications while you’re pregnant, while Tdap protects your baby from whooping cough (which is highly contagious and potentially deadly) in the months before he begins his own vaccine series.

Babies aren’t stressed out by getting shots

Though no parent likes to see her baby cry, remember that the very temporary pain your baby feels from a shot amounts to infinitesimally less suffering than he’d experience if he came down with a vaccine-preventable disease like whooping cough or the measles. Research has shown that holding your baby and talking or singing during shots helps distract him; breastfeeding just before or after can soothe him and sometimes even help relieve pain. If you’re still concerned, talk to your doctor about giving your baby a sugar solution beforehand or numbing solution after, both of which can also help ease discomfort.

There are risks to falling behind on the schedule

The CDC’s vaccine schedule is recommended for a reason: It works. For some shots, more than one dose is required to build up full immunity; for others, immunity wanes with time. Skipping or delaying shots puts your baby at risk of getting sick from the illnesses they protect against starting early in your child’s life. So be sure to stick to the schedule and attend all of your baby’s postnatal follow-up appointments.

Vaccines are free for children

Vaccines are hands-down the least expensive and most effective way to protect your baby’s health now and in the future. If your baby doesn’t have insurance, or your insurance somehow doesn’t cover vaccinations, the Vaccines for Children (VFC) program provides vaccines at no cost to eligible kids under the age of 19 at participating doctor’s offices, clinics and health departments.

From the What to Expect editorial team and Heidi Murkoff, author of What to Expect When You’re Expecting. Health information on this site is based on peer-reviewed medical journals and highly respected health organizations and institutions including ACOG (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists), CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics), as well as the What to Expect books by Heidi Murkoff.

View Sources

  • Medically reviewed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 2018.
  • What to Expect When You’re Expecting, 5th edition, Heidi Murkoff and Sharon Mazel.
  •, Vaccines to Get Before and During Pregnancy, December 2017.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pregnancy and Vaccination, August 2016.